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Use this site to investigate the floods story, then visit and explore the extraordinary landscape itself. You’re also invited to join the Institute and support the Institute’s mandate.

Welcome to the lake of healing waters (Smokiam), located in the original plunge pool of the Lower Grand Coulee, for the 2017 IAFI Fall Membership Meeting and Tour at Soap Lake, WA, hosted by the Lower Grand Coulee Chapter on … [Read More Here ]

The Ellensburg Chapter of the Ice Age Floods Institute has a new webpage with presentation videos and field trip guides. The Ellensburg Chapter was created in 2007 by Tom Foster, Karl Lillquist, & Nick Zentner. The chapter has offered free events for … [Read More Here ]

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Use this site to investigate the floods story, then visit and explore the extraordinary landscape itself. You’re also invited to join the Institute and support the Institute’s mandate.

Welcome to the lake of healing waters (Smokiam), located in the original plunge pool of the Lower Grand Coulee, for the 2017 IAFI Fall Membership Meeting and Tour at Soap Lake, WA, hosted by the Lower Grand Coulee Chapter on … [Read More Here ]

The Ellensburg Chapter of the Ice Age Floods Institute has a new webpage with presentation videos and field trip guides. The Ellensburg Chapter was created in 2007 by Tom Foster, Karl Lillquist, & Nick Zentner. The chapter has offered free events for … [Read More Here ]

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Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation , mainly originating outside the Solar System. [1] Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere , cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei , they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi Space Telescope (2013) [2] have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernova explosions of stars. [3] Active galactic nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays. [4]

The term ray is a historical accident, as cosmic rays were at first, and wrongly, thought to be mostly electromagnetic radiation. In common scientific usage, [5] high-energy particles with intrinsic mass are known as "cosmic" rays, while photons , which are quanta of electromagnetic radiation (and so have no intrinsic mass) are known by their common names, such as gamma rays or X-rays , depending on their photon energy.

The Oh-My-God particle , the highest-energy fermionic cosmic ray detected to date, had an energy of about 7020300000000000000♠ 3 × 10 20 eV , while the highest-energy gamma rays to be observed, very-high-energy gamma rays , are photons with energies of up to 6995160217648700000♠ 10 14 eV. Hence, the highest-energy detected fermionic cosmic ray was around 7006300000000000000♠ 3 × 10 6 times more energetic than the highest-energy detected cosmic photons.