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Legends of “revenance,” or people returning from the dead, have deep roots among human civilizations, stretching all the way back to ancient Egypt, Greece, Babylonia and beyond. As reported in LiveScience , vampire tales have circulated in eastern Europe since at least the 11th century. According to ancient folklore, a person risked becoming a vampire after death if he or she was unbaptized, or killed in some violent manner. People also risked vampirehood if they were outsiders from another area, or if they were among the first to die from an infectious disease.

In fact, the longstanding idea that vampires drink blood may date back to medieval plagues and epidemics, when diseased corpses would remain exposed for extended periods of time. Gases inside the decomposing body would cause bloating, and force blood up through the lungs and esophagus and into the mouth. Those people unfamiliar with such biological processes may have seen corpses in this state and believed they had grown fat from feasting on human blood.

In 17th and 18th century Poland, people performed apotropaic funerary rites, intended to guard against evil, for those people who they suspected might become vampires after death. These included placing the sharp, curved farming tools called sickles across their bodies, or lodging large rocks under their chins. The idea was that if the person did rise from the dead, the sharp blade of the sickle would decapitate him, while the rocks would pin his jaw shut and prevent him from preying on the living.

The Jews ( /dʒuːz/ ; [10] Hebrew : יְהוּדִים ‎ ISO 259-3 Yhudim , Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim] ), also known as the Jewish people , are an ethnoreligious group [11] and nation [12] [13] [14] originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East. [15] [16] Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, [17] [18] [19] while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, including philosophy , [34] ethics , [35] literature , politics , business , fine arts and architecture , religion , music , theatre [36] and cinema , medicine , [37] [38] as well as science and technology , both historically and in modern times.

The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe . These terms derive from Old French giu , earlier juieu , which had elided (dropped) the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus , which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios , meant both Jews and Judeans / "of Judea ". [39]

Allie Dart’s funeral service, which was streamed live on the 14th of August from the funeral home’s website, continues to be available on Alli e Dart ’s tribute.

[Note by CB: This is a guest post by Holly Lawford-Smith, a political philosopher at the University of Melbourne. Internet discussion on this topic has been very heated so we intend to enforce quite a restrictive comments policy. All comments that are not written in a minimally respectful tone, vis a vis all parties, will not be approved. No raising of voices. No insults.]

I want to make three points here. The first is about Hypatia ’s unique commitments. The second is about ‘dangerous ideas’. The last is about inclusiveness in the profession. (I’m not going to address the specific complaints made in the open letter, because this has been done elsewhere.) accessed 4th May 2017.

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